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如何更好地激发孩子们的天性?这位日本建筑师有妙招

admin 2019-09-27 214人围观 ,发现0个评论



来自Tezuka Architects的东京幼儿园,孩子们将在屋顶自由地奔跑

Tokyo kindergarten by Tezuka Architects lets children run free on the roof

这个幼儿园拥有椭圆形的屋顶,让调皮的孩子们能够在屋顶上欢快地嬉戏奔跑,这个作品近期获得了2017年Moriyama RAIC国际奖项。

富士幼儿园项目10年前由Tezuka Architects设计完成,位于立川市郊区。它可容纳600个2岁至6岁的孩子。

The oval-shaped roof deck of this playful Tokyo kindergarten allows children to play and run endless laps around it – a feature that has just won it the 2017 Moriyama RAIC International Prize.

Completed by Tezuka Architects 10 years ago, Fuji Kindergarten is located in the Tachikawa suburb of the city. It accommodates 600 children aged between two and six.



这个幼儿园遵循蒙台梭利教学法,这是开放式教育法,给予孩子们充分的自由,让他们通过自主发现来学习。

传统的幼儿园设计方式总是对孩子们设置了许多条条框框,而东京建筑师Takaharu Tezuka则是通过了连续的空间设计,让孩子们能够无拘无束地学习与玩耍。

建筑师把这种概念称为“怀旧的未来”,他通过观察孩子们在没有电子设备和大屏幕的情况下自由玩耍的过程,然后捕捉其中的细节,再通过前瞻性的设计思路设计出来。

该项目已获得今年的Moriyama RAIC国际奖,这是对作品的认可,评委会评价该作品位“适应社会变革的设计”。

The school follows the Montessori Method, an educati如何更好地激发孩子们的天性?这位日本建筑师有妙招onal approach where children are given freedom to range around the classroom and learn via discovery.

Rather than impose physical boundaries on the children, Tokyo-based architect Takaharu Tezuka designed the kindergarten as a continuous space that allows for unfettered learning and play.

He calls his concept the "nostalgic future", where he looks at the way children would naturally choose to play without gadgets and screens, then facilitates it with future-forward designs.

The project has been awarded this year's Moriyama RAIC International Prize, which recognises a work of architecture considered "transformative within its societal context".



这里并没有安装过多的游戏设备,只是让建筑本身成为一个巨大的游乐场,孩子们能够在这里自由地玩耍,无需害怕他们跌倒或者弄湿自己,这是一个完全安全的环境。

“因为建筑的椭圆外形,孩子们能够相互看到对方。”Tezuka告诉Dezeen记者,“建筑中央通透。这种方式对于每个人来说都是公平的,他们可以更好地学习该如何在集体中生活。”

相比起传统的跑道,这个幼儿园的屋顶面积是传统操场和跑道的两倍,并通过椭圆外形,为孩子们形成了一个无尽头的区域用于相互追逐。屋顶上种植有榉树,周围还有一些易于攀爬的安全网。

当孩子们开始相互玩耍,那么对于建筑来说它便发挥了真正的功能。

“很简单,他们刚开始跑步时,”Tezuka说,“完全超出了我们的预料。我和校长看到这一幕是都惊呆了,这些来自于孩子们内心最纯真的反应。”

扶手周围有一个安全屏障,将内部庭院变成了竞技场。栏杆的间距很小,小到不会夹住孩子们的身体部位,他们还可以双腿悬空地在栏杆上坐着。

屋顶的高度只有2.1米,并与各个楼层紧密相连,孩子们可以爬上各个区域,再爬上楼梯,然后滑回地面。

There is no play equipment installed, instead the architecture itself functions as a giant playground. Children are allowed to move about freely, fall down and get wet within a safe environment.

"Because the building is a ring they are looking at each other, Tezuka told Dezeen. "There is no sense of a middle. The children learn to be fair to everybody, they learn how to be a part of a nice group."

The roof area doubles as a playground and a running track, giving the students an endless ring to chase each other around. The deck was built around the existing zelkova trees, with nets placed around the bas如何更好地激发孩子们的天性?这位日本建筑师有妙招e to allow for easy climbing.

When the children first started interacting the building it wa如何更好地激发孩子们的天性?这位日本建筑师有妙招s an emotional moment.

"It was simple, they just started running, said Tezuka. "It was beyond our expectations. I was sitting with the principal and everyone had tears. It was amazing, an instant reaction."

Handrail经纬度s around the edge act as a safety barrier and allow the inner courtyard to be turned into an arena. The railings are close enough together that children won't get their heads stuck, but allow them to sit with their legs dangling through.

The roof height is only 2.1 metres tall, allowing a close connection between the levels. Children can scramble up a bank and climb a set of stairs to reach a slide from the deck back to the ground.



屋顶上设置有天窗,让自然光能够进入下方的教室,孩子们也能通过天窗看到伙伴从上方走过,五个集水通道将水进入下水口,在雨天为孩子们创造了一个天然的瀑布。

在地面层,教室的滑动门在天气好时能够完全打开,建筑师没有把墙壁分隔开来,而是为孩子们用轻质木材设计了小箱子,这些小箱子可以相互堆叠,从而形成书架和展示区。

Skylights are built into the deck, letting natural light into the classrooms below and providing the children with a porthole to peek at their classmates through. Five gargoyles channel rainwater into water butts, creating impromptu waterfalls for students to play in during wet weather.

At ground level, sliding doors allow the classrooms to be open to the elements during good weather. Instead of dividing walls, the architects created child-sized boxes made from light wood with rounded edges that can be stacked to create shelves and display areas.



Tezuka认为,传统的幼儿园设计方式是以一种并不自然以及违背孩子意愿的策略,从而形成一种看似积极的学习环境。而这种自由设计策略则更加鼓励独立和协作,而不是强迫孩子们安静、长时间地坐着。

通过将教室开放,600个孩子的声音形成了自然环境中的白噪音。Tezuka在巴厘岛度假时遇见了作曲家和分子生物学家Tsutomu Ohashi,从而形成了这个设计灵感。

当印尼音乐表演Ohashi邀请他去听音乐会时,他意识到有的声音虽然会被噪音所覆盖,但他在观看表演时,却能自动将这些噪音过滤。

他说:“就像鱼不能生活在过于纯净的水中一样,孩子们也不能生活在一个过分纯净、安静和受控制的环境中。”

摄影:Katsuhisa Kida

Tezuka believes standard classroom design is unnatural and counter productive to a positive learning environment. The free plan design encourages independence and collaboration, without forcing children to sit still and silent for long periods of time.

By leaving the classrooms open, the sound of 600 children creates the level of white noise found in natural environments. Tezuka got the idea when he met the composer and molecular biologist Tsutomu Ohashi while on holiday in Bali.

Listening back to a recording of an Indonesian music performance Ohashi invited him to, he realised the sound was obscured by the noise of the jungle he had been able to unconsciously filter whilst watching the show.

"Just as a fish cannot live in purified water, children cannot live in a clean, quiet and controlled environment," he said.

Photography is by Katsuhisa Kida.

由专筑网李韧,曹逸希编译

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